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Citing Sources (APA, MLA, ...): APA Reference List

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Title -- APA Reference List -- Books

APA Reference List -- Books

Basic format for books:

Refer to the tabs in this box for examples of citations to different types of book content.

Notes:

  1. Name of author must be arranged in sequence of last name, first name and middle name. Initials only for the first and middle name.
  2. Use "n.d." if no publication date is given.
  3. The title and subtitle (if any) must be italicized.
  4. Capitalize only the first letter of a book title, the first letter of a subtitle, and any proper nouns.
  5. Do not include the location of the publisher.

Authored book with a DOI:

Edited book with a DOI:

An edited book is made up of chapters written by different authors. If you are citing only a single chapter from an edited work, follow the citation format for a book chapter.

Notes:

  1. The DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique string of characters identifying a digital work. It should be presented as a URL in the form https://doi.org/xxxx
  2. When citing an ebook that you have found in a research database (e.g. ProQuest Ebook Central, EBSCOhost Ebook Collection) and there is no DOI, simply follow the same format as for print books 

Authored book, print version:

Edited book, print version:

An edited book is made up of chapters written by different authors. If you are citing only a single chapter from an edited work, follow the citation format for a book chapter.

The examples below show how to format a citation to a chapter in an edited book (i.e. a book with chapters written by different authors).

For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the entire book and provide the chapter number with the in-text citation only.

Basic format for book chapters:

Basic format for APA style book chapter citation

Chapter in an edited book with a DOI:

Chapter in an edited book, print version:

Title -- APA Reference List -- Journals

APA Reference List -- Journals

Basic format for periodical articles:

Refer to the tabs in this box for examples of citations to different types of periodical content.

Notes:

  1. Do not use "et al." in your reference list. If there are 20 or fewer authors, all must be listed out. If there are 21 or more authors, list the first 19 and then separate the 19th from the last named author with an ellipsis ("...").
  2. The title of the periodical should be capitalized.

Journal article without a DOI:

Journal article with a DOI:

Notes:

  1. Some journals do not separate volumes into issues, in such cases simply omit the issue number.
  2. The DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique identifier that provides a persistent link to digital content. It should always be provided in your reference when it is available.

Magazine article:

Newspaper article:

Title -- APA Reference List -- Audiovisual Materials

APA Reference List -- Audiovisual Materials

Basic format for online videos:

YouTube video:

Note:

  1. The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author to aid retrieval, even if they did not create the work.

TV series:

TV series episode:

Notes:

  1. If a TV series is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present", e.g. (2018-present).
  2. Include writer(s) and the director for TV series episodes, and include the contributor's roles in parentheses after their name.
  3. Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.

Single song or track:

Music album:

Note:

  1. If a song has no associated album, omit that part of the reference.

Artwork in a museum or on a museum website:

Photograph:

Note:

  1. For an untitled artwork/photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of the title.

Title -- APA Reference List -- Websites and Other Materials

APA Reference List -- Websites and Other Materials

Use this category of reference ONLY if there is no other reference category that fits.

If you are referencing an entire website, you can simply mention the name of the website in your text and provide the URL in parentheses, e.g.:

There is no need to include the website in your list of references.

Basic format for websites:

Webpage on a news website:

 

Note:

  1. If the name of the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

Dissertation or thesis published online (not in a database)

Dissertation or thesis from a database

APA Publication Manual (7th ed.)