All APA style in-text citations should include the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
When quoting a specific part of the source, you must also provide information about the specific part of the source you are quoting (e.g. page numbers).
APA in-text citations can be in one of two formats:
(1) Parenthetical citations include the required information in parentheses, for example:
(2) Narrative citations incorporate citation information into the text as part of the sentence. For example:
Place long direct quotations (40 words or more) in a left-indented block. Note that no quotation marks are necessary for longer quotations. For example:
It is optional to include the page number for paraphrasing (however you may want to do so to help your reader find the original text themselves). For example:
The Latin phrase "et al." ("and others") is used to avoid lengthy in-text citations.
Below are the rules for using "et al." in APA citations:
|Number of authors||Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|One||(Chan, 2018)||Chan (2018)|
|Two||(Yeung & Wong, 2019)||Yeung and Wong (2019)|
|Three or more||(Mendelsohn et al., 2010)||Mendelsohn et al. (2010)|
Note that you should never use "et al." in your list of references.
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