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Citing Sources (APA, MLA, ...): MLA In-text Citations

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MLA In-text citations

MLA In-text citations

In-text citations should be as brief and as clear as possible. Their purpose is to unobtrusively guide readers to the corresponding entry in your list of works cited.

Generally, a parenthetical citation includes the author's last name and the page number(s) of the information used.

Direct Quotations

Place the author's name either in parentheses or within the sentence. For example:


 Place long direct quotations in a left-indented block.  For example:

Summary or Paraphrase

Indicate the source by the author and the page number(s) in the parentheses. For example:

Works with more than one author

For works with two authors, include the last name of both authors and connect with "and".

    For example: (Clyde and Thomas 369)

For works with three or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by et al.

    For example: (Wong et al. 145)

Archival documents

For archival documents, use the author’s name in parenthesis without page numbers.

Archival materials

MLA Handbook and Manuals